Part IThe Goose Comes of Age

Louis Brandeis in 1912 created a verbal vision for Woodrow Wilson’s “New Freedom” by proposing an ethical code of com-petitiveness to prevent further monopolistic power. Both Wilson and Brandeis had good intentions. Unfortunately, good intentions are not enough when  power is at stake. Wilson had been set up, as he came to realize before his death.  The very men who put him in the Presidency were the men who wanted to control “the people’s own money.” 

Before we explore, at a future date, the role that Woodrow Wilson had in creation of the Federal Reserve system, we must under-stand how its predecessor—the J.P. Morgan banking network— functioned “as America’s central bank, and how it stepped into the historic breach between Andrew Jackson’s 1832 veto of the second Bank of the United States and passage of the Federal Reserve Act in 1913.”  [2]

It was a clique centered around Morgan which would use Wilson as a pawn. Decades before 1913, however, Morgan’s financial network was busily following models taught by August Belmont, the American agent for N.M. Rothschild & Company—by which they tried to control monetary supply, using the people’s own money.  Who they were, and how they got their hands on that money (metaphorically compared by Brandeis to “golden eggs”) is the subject of this article. 

This historical exploration is not without purpose. The model is still in use today. Morgan’s role as central banker has since been superseded, however, by the Federal Reserve System, and the names of the political minions have changed.  Once we under-stand how events were shaped (dare we say “manipulated”) by Morgan, then we can begin to recognize how much control cen-tralized banking interests have over every aspect of our lives today. 

The Role of Skull and Bones in
the Growth of the Morgan Bank
Before 1838, when George Peabody set up a brokerage office in London, there was no real need for a stock exchange in America, since there was no capital surplus large enough to finance the construction of new infrastructure; almost all major capital was raised from foreign investment. 

But opium changed that. Profits from illicit trade in China were such that American entrepreneurs were able to bring huge profits back and reinvest it as equity in such industries as New England textile factories and railroads. Nevertheless, the profits were no sufficient initially to finance all the demands for funding of public infrastructure projects desired by state and municipal govern-ments.  Peabody marketed such bonds and other securities in London to raise necessary funds for roads, canals and the like.

By 1868, Peabody had died, leaving his partner Junius S. Morgan in charge of the London banking house. Morgan, son of Joseph Morgan of Hartford, Connecticut, in 1836 married Juliet Pierpont—daughter of John and Mary Sheldon Lord Pierpont—who came from a long line of Congregationalist ministers. Juliet's great-great-grandfather, the Rev. James Pierpont (Harvard 1681), was a founder of Yale College, and his wife was the granddaughter of  Thomas Hooker, a Puritan, who founded the colony of Connecticut, which had adopted the first written constitution. [3]
 
Rev. Pierpont’s daughter Sarah, who in 1728  had married the Rev. Jonathan Edwards, would later become the grandmother of both accused traitor Aaron Burr and of Northern Secessionist Timothy Dwight—president of Yale from 1795 until 1817. [4]

But Burr woul not be the only member of the Pierpont family who lost faith in the policies of America's elected representatives by the early years of the 19th century. Juliet’s own father, John Pierpont (Yale 1804), who practiced law in Newburyport (Essex County), Massachussetts, protested against the War of 1812 and the embargo before moving to Boston to study for the ministry. The Pierponts, in addition to being an aristocratic family with branches that controlled numerous pools of wealth, had long been connected to a faction which opposed the way majority rule operated in the American Republic.

Junius and Juliet Morgan’s eldest son, John Pierpont Morgan, was educated in Vevey, Switzerland and at the University of Göttingen, Germany, before working with his father in London. After serving as the Peabody and Junius Morgan bank’s New York agent for several years, he formed J.P. Morgan and Company in 1895, five years after his father had died. Connections to Yale’s elite came from his maternal grandmother, a descendant of both the Lord and Lynde families, which are strongly represented among the Skull and Bones society.

The Pierponts were related not only to the Edwards and Burr families, but to the opium trading Russell family. Sarah Pierpont’s sister Mary, who married William Russell, was mother to Samuel, who founded Russell and Company in 1824, and to Rev. Nodiah Russell, a founder of Yale and the grandfather of William Huntington Russell.

The ties to Yale made it possible for Morgan to become banker of choice for the Skull and Bones members who had gained positions as directors and trustees of institutions that had pools of money to invest, according to the original vision in 1832.

[See inset “Freedom Through Order”]

By the 1870’s, however, a second generation had assumed con-trol, and they were not satisfied with simply investing existing capital. They wanted much more than that. Their vision was of turning the New York Stock Exchange into a goose whose golden eggs were theirs for the stealing. This second generation was composed of men who had been led to believe they were special, privileged and not answerable to the masses. There is a reason, as we shall see below, why they would become known as the “robber barons,” and their age as “gilded.”
 
Henry Stimson’s Bones Network
In 1856 a special act of the Connecticut legislature gave the Russell Trust Association the status of a corporation, with a New Haven attorney named Henry Dyer White (Skull and Bones 1851) as its treasurer. [5] Antony Sutton mentions in his classic book that another member of what he terms “The Order” was Charles Atwood White (Skull and Bones 1854), father of Mabel White, who married Henry Stimson five years after his 1881 graduation from Yale. The couple first met while young Stimson was a Yale student at a whist party given by the Whites’ next-door neighbor, William D. Whitney, Professor of Sanskrit and a member of an extraordinary Massachusetts family closely tied to the Order. [6] Mabel’s grand-father, Henry White, was a New Haven lawyer who had five sons initiated into the Order, several of whom became attorneys and worked at various times in his [7] firm. The Whites lived at  87 Trumbull, which today is part of Yale’s campus. [8] Skull and Bones was the social circle into which Stimson’s marriage brought him.

















Skull and Bones at Yale

According to Stimson’s biographer, Henry Stimson’s father—Dr. Lewis Atterbury Stimson—did not relish the thought of his son’s marriage to a person of a lesser class than his family, even though Mabel’s ancestry, through her grandmother, was directly traceable to Captain Miles Standish of the Plymouth Colony. [9] Nevertheless, the connection to the Order would give the young husband a foot in the door with Bonesman William Collins Whitney (Skull and Bones 1863), a Yale classmate and friend of Dr. Stimson. [10]

[See inset for “William C. Whitney—Morgan’s Money Spinner”]

Whitney recommended Stimson to his own attorney, Elihu Root, a graduate of Hamilton College where Root’s father was a mathe-matics professor. Henry B. Payne, Whitney’s father-in-law had also been born and educated in Hamilton, NY before relocating in 1833 to Ohio, where his wife’s father, Nathan Perry, was the leading merchant. [11] Through this marriage, Payne thus made contact with the nautical Rhode Island Perrys of Newport—a town with the unpleasant distinction of having been the center of the African slave trade. [12] 

[See inset for “Perrys of Newport”]

Rothschild agent August Belmont, who married Caroline Slidell Perry, had helped transform Newport into an opulent resort for America’s most wealthy, including the Vanderbilt and Astor families.

By accepting Root’s offer of employment in 1891, Stimson would be working for a man who had helped Democratic Governor Samuel Tilden end the Tweed Ring’s control of Tammany Hall, even though Root had represented Republican Boss William Tweed in 1873. Whitney’s goal had not been to stop corruption, but to control it, believing that graft and political corruption were contemptible only so long as they were not being used to his own advantage. Whitney boasted that he hired Root’s firm because Root knew how to manipulate the law without breaking it.

Inventing the “Pump and Dump”
Whitney’s loyalty to the Democratic Party won him an appoint-ment as Secretary of the Navy under Grover Cleveland in 1885. As naval chief for four years, Whitney supervised an ambitious pro-gram to build battleships and to modernize the navy, which would serve to benefit the Perry family, as well as to make it possible in 1898 to challenge Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. [13]

By 1890 Whitney had returned to New York, and his syndicate had begun to consolidate street railways in Philadelphia, New York, and smaller cities into one electric transit company. They hired attorney Francis Lynde Stetson to incorporate America’s first holding company, which would become a model for financial fraud to the present day. [14] 

According to the legal model Stetson followed, stock of Metropolitan Traction Company, a holding company, was issued to pay Whitney and his associates for the forty or so independent surface transit companies whose properties they had purchased, including franchise rights. Since Whitney’s syndicate controlled the new city officials, they were able to obtain a monopoly concession to build one electric streetcar system along the various routes previously authorized—a right which increased the value of the properties sold to the holding company.

Almost all the properties purchased were decrepit horse-car lines in unprofitable territory, with little earning capacity or value; yet Metropolitan paid prices in amounts from five to twenty times their acquisition costs plus anticipated cost of construction. [15] The routes with greater value were merely leased at large annual rentals in excess of their potential revenue.

When the holding company’s management (Whitney’s syndicate members) began declaring huge dividends for Metropolitan Traction Company—thus pumping up the stock’s price to ever greater heights—the unwary public rushed to the NYSE to buy the stock, which the insiders were happy to dump to the tune of millions in profits for themselves.

Having once sold all their stock, the promoters then felt no obli-gation to actually build the modernized streetcar system they had promised. Newspaper publicity against the fraud perpetrated by the Metropolitan Traction Co. resulted in rescission of its fran-chise, an action overturned after an appeal to the Supreme Court handled by Root and Clarke. "It is not a function of law," Root rationalized, "to enforce the rules of morality."

The evidence supports only one conclusion:  Henry Stimson’s true role as an attorney and “statesman” was to defend the interests of those bankers engaged in creating an American central bank. His office was located almost adjacent to the site where in 1914 the Federal Reserve Bank of New York would be located, in a building which would remain his home base off and on for over fifty years. [16] When Root left the firm in 1899 to join the Republican administration, Stimson and another associate, Bronson Winthrop, started their own firm in the same location, engaged primarily in corporate securities and litigation. Winthrop (an American globalist, who had been born in Paris and educated in England), shared with John Forbes Kerry a mutual ancestor, Wait Winthrop, as detailed in Untitled Aristocracy.

In 1906 Stimson followed the same path blazed by Elihu Root—as attorney for the southern district of New York—the district with jurisdiction over the New York Stock Exchange and the lower Manhattan banks. Bronson remained in the original offices to carry on the firm’s legal business, with Stimson returning from time to time between appointments in Washington.  These men com-prised an internationalist, even imperialistic, circle of men deter-mined to make America a supreme power in the world.

Musical Chairs Skull and Bones Style
In 1899 Republican Elihu Root was appointed secretary of war by President McKinley, who had spearheaded the Spanish-American War, which would then lead to his suppression of the Boxer Rebellion in China. [17] Less than six months after the inauguration on his second term,  McKinley was assassinated, and Theodore Roosevelt  became President. Secretary of State John Hay, whose daughter Helen in 1902 would marry Whitney’s son Payne (Skull and Bones 1898), had supervised the treaty to end the Spanish-American War and formulated the Open Door policy. [18] When Hay left the Cabinet, Elihu Root took his position and would be re-placed in turn by William Howard Taft (Skull and Bones 1878, and son of founder Alphonso Taft). Taft had first served in 1900 on the Philippine Commission, eventually serving as Governor General of the Islands, before advancing to the chair of Secretary of War in 1904. After his stint as head of the State Department, Taft moved to the White House in 1909.

As President, Taft appointed Root’s former associate Stimson to be Secretary of War in 1911. In 1912, after Taft and TR had cam-paigned against each other, thus making way for a Democrat, Woodrow Wilson, to usher in the radical banking “reforms” which the Republicans had been supporting by other names for years, Taft returned to Yale as a professor until he was named Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1921.

In 1927 Stimson served under Calvin Coolidge in Taft’s former role of Governor General of the Philippines (where John Kerry’s great-uncle W. Cameron Forbes, had also served), as well as being Secretary of State in the administration of Republican Herbert Hoover. So popular (or perhaps only “connected”) was Stimson that he was also tapped by Democrats Franklin Roosevelt and Harry Truman to be Secretary of War. [19]

Stimson’s ubiquity in each successive administration was due, not so much to his military and diplomatic brilliance, but to his knowledge of how to secretly finance war and extract spoils from the defeated—combined with his closeness to the money spinners operating undeterred behind the scenes. Colonel Stimson was like a sentry, pacing back and forth in front of the door to the henhouse where geese were busily laying golden eggs. He was there, not to protect the geese or their eggs, but to run interference for his co-conspirators inside who snatched up the gold as soon as it appeared. These geese represent pools of wealth accumulated through hard work, charitable donations and taxes imposed on Americans. Investment bankers, ostensibly intending only to “borrow” the gold and return it with interest, have been trained for generations how to stealthily remove that gold, in order to amass huge fortunes for themselves through market manipulation and fraud. 

When they fail in their claimed intent to return the gold, to prevent exposure they blithely plan new wars or other diversions in order to save their reputations.  McKinley, Roosevelt and Taft, for example, promised the American people that there was an urgent need to “liberate” the islands of Cuba and the Philippines from Spain, and that the territory would be “developed” and “reconstructed” for the benefit of those abused populations. 

We all recognize that George W. Bush is in no sense a creative intellectual.  Neither are those who have planned the war in Iraq. They are merely following the same model used at the turn of the previous century—for exactly the same reason.  They know there is oil in Iraq, and that the untapped markets there could not be tapped while Saddam was in power.  By removing him, it would be possible to open the door to trade with Iraq—another goose of sorts—whose glittering eggs were too hard to resist.
Freedom Through Order
The philosophy which has dominated the Western world since the mid 19th Century can be reduced to one tenet derived from Hegel’s dialectic teachings: Ultimate peace comes only through conflict. It proposes that a clash between ideologies (thesis and antithesis) is a normal historical phenomenon which always results in compromise (synthesis) that ad-vances civilization to a higher level of order. Conflict, in other words, is good, and peace is not necessarily desirable (or profitable) [20].

Educated men had founded governments after a period of violence and chaos, a state that would return unless members of society advanced to a higher level by accepting the need to abide by voluntary rules of law and order.  Once most individuals accepted the “truth” that an ordered life brings greater peace, leaders could then frame institutions by which non-conformists could be forced into their “proper role” in a peaceful society. 

This Hegelian philosophy had risen to increasing prominence by 1860 and appealed to elitist Americans studying in German universities then. Recognizing a German need at the time to unify the nation state, Hegel’s writing also looked forward to a day of universal—global—brotherhood accomplished by rejecting selfish individualism. Repelled by the chaos of the French Revolution, Hegel taught that political democracy and individualism ultimately resulted in repression rather than liberty and that an orderly and structured society afforded more freedom than a chaotic one.
 
American students in Germany who were most attracted to this philosophy believed that Western classical liberal thought upon which America had been founded, rather than being the ideal toward which America should strive, was actu-ally the enemy of progress toward universal brotherhood. Moreover, one of those students, William Huntington Russell, whose family had made a fortune selling opium in China, returned to Yale in 1832 to found a branch of a German secret society at Yale with fellow student Alphonso Taft. [21] It is this secret society, called Skull and Bones, into which both John Kerry and George W. Bush were inducted during their junior year at Yale.

Hegel’s German idealism (categorized as such because it stressed the dominance of ideas over physical environment) would be-come the philosophical basis for the work of both Karl Marx  and Adolph Hitler—each of whom envisioned different ends to be achieved by the same means—control over the indi-vidual by the state. This paradox—that Hegel’s theories were used as the foundation of the Bolshevik revolution of 1917, while at the same time giving a basis to the fascist movement of the 1930’s—is not so extraordinary when we realize that, as Antony Sutton’s research reveals, both extreme economic doctrines were financed by the same small group of Americans, at the core of which were members of the secret society that had previously been founded by Russell and Taft. [22]

This group became clustered around the Peabody and Morgan banking institutions. One facet of dialectics was its philosophical justi-fication for simultaneously supporting two opposite positions on a political issue, thus allowing its members to make a profit no matter which party was in power. Talk about hedging bets! 

Skull and Bones was set up as a secret fraternity of men from elite social strata within the fields of education, religion, medicine, law, science, transportation, banking and the arts.  There was a place for opposing points of view within their scheme, as long as each man agreed to maintain the established class order and took an oath to keep everything related to Bones secret. In this way, regardless of whether political power was in the right hand or the left, depending on which way the political pendulum was swinging, power would be in the skeletal hand of Yale’s elite Skull and Bones financial network.

Pool of Wealth—a
Goose That Lays Golden Eggs
In 1832, the year the first Skull and Bones class was initiated, America was not unlike Hegel’s Germany.  A generation after the War of 1812 the U.S. Constitution was still less than a half century old and the new nation more divided than ever. The failure of the Second Bank of the U.S. in 1832 left state chartered banks free to issue their own bank notes, which could be traded as currency —resulting in financial chaos leading to the Panic of 1837. Consequently, a uniform currency, a stable rate of exchange, and a secondary market for securities had to be created in order for the American economy to have liquidity.

The National Currency Act of 1863 and National Bank Act of 1864 helped to achieve these needs, replacing state chartered banks with national ones, though it would be alleged after numerous panics—in 1873, 1893 and 1907—that there was a need for a centralized control in order to expand and contract the currency when needed.

By 1878, once the country had recovered from the 1873 panic caused by the failure of Jay Cooke’s bank, New York City had replaced London as the dominant financial center for United States capital. American businessmen were primed to get rich. Skull and Bones members decided their time had come to con-solidate the power their founders had hoped to achieve.

What Russell and Taft envisioned by creating the Russell Trust was a network of men who could use surplus wealth (“golden eggs”) produced from the lucrative China Trade as a venture capital pool to acquire equity in business entities to be created by American entrepreneurs. The pool could be repaid with interest while helping the entrepreneurs become rich, with new pools of wealth springing up to seed new ventures—each new pool of money the equivalent of a goose laying eggs of gold.

The idea was to inspire Bonesmen to advance to the top of their chosen profession in order to oversee an endowment of surplus for invest-ment, to be managed by fellow Bonesmen.  As pointed out by Antony Sutton, Bonesmen  Daniel Coit Gilman founded Johns Hopkins University, and Andrew Dickson White set up Cornell. Similarly, those who chose careers in religion, medicine, law, science, transportation, banking and the arts also controlled trust funds or handled large pools of money, which added to a huge pool ultimately tapped into by the same bank—headed by J. Pierpont Morgan. Back
William C. Whitney,
Morgan’s Money Spinner

The Yale class of 1863, in addition to William C. Whitney, included Lewis Atterbury Stimson, and Bonesmen Henry Farnam Dimock and William Graham Sumner. A mere upstart in social standing, Sumner (whose working-class father did not immigrate to America from Lancashire, England until 1835) was, however, found to be of use to his fellow Bonesmen in verbally justifying their philosophy of greed and free trade. [23]

Dimock married Susan Collins Whitney (William Whitney’s sister), while employed by Whitney’s Metropolitian Traction Co. in its fraudulent securities operation, and would also serve as a member of the Yale Corporation.

A descendant of an old Massachusetts family, Whitney in 1869 married the sister his Yale classmate Oliver Hazard Payne, Flora, whose father had grown up in Hamilton, New York near Elihu Root’s family.

After moving to Ohio, Payne met and married Mary Perry, whose connections to the Perry naval dynasty from Newport, Rhode Island gave the family access to August Belmont, part of Newport's social set, and for generations the primary financier of the Democratic Party. The Paynes were also Democrats, another link with Belmont.

It has been stated that John D. Rockefeller’s dry goods company was initially financed through the National City Bank in Cleveland, Ohio before he and several associates founded Standard Oil. By the time Congress conducted a study in 1976 on the influence of foreign banks on American banking, the bank which provided the seed capital for Rockefeller’s empire was found to be part of the Rothschild banking network. [24] Payne, one of the investors of Standard Oil, may have served as the link between Rockefeller and Rothschild capital because of his wife’s connections in Newport to the Perrys, Slidells and Belmonts.

Senator Payne’s son Oliver was treasurer of the Standard Oil Company and helped finance his father’s political campaigns with help from his brother-in-law in New York. Oliver was also a first cousin of Congressman Sereno E. Payne of New York, who sponsored the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act of 1909 with help from Senator Nelson Aldrich of Rhode Island, who was also John D. Rockefeller’s father-in-law.   Sen. Aldrich would also chair the secret meeting at Jekyll Island, Florida in 1910 to organize the legislation for the Federal Reserve System. 

But prior to the formal creation of that private central bank, the United States was informally using the J.P. Morgan as the banker of last resort. The Morgan network may have had different investments from Rockefeller syn-dicate, but each was dependent for its survival upon international exchange rates and other trading advantages. Rather than being competitors, they have instead acted in concert when those issues are involved.

Some of the myriad connections between the Bush family and heirs of William C. Whitney have been creditably disclosed in The Unauthorized Biography of George Bush by Tarpley and Chaitkin. Back
Perrys of Newport
Much as the British Empire had waged war on China to force the opening of its markets to the opium trade, the American naval forces, led by Matthew Perry, engaged in similar warfare against Japan in the 1850’s, but for a different reason. The American Navy desired to use Japan as a "coaling base" where coal-driven steamships could restock. [25]

The Navy launched its first two steam-powered ships in 1841. Perry was at the fore-front of this new development, sometimes called “the Father of the Steam Navy,” and his warships were tested in the 1845 Mexican War. Four years after that war began, Matthew Perry’s daughter, Caroline Slidell Perry (1829-1892), married August Belmont, N.M. Rothschilds’ American agent. [26]

A son of that marriage, Oliver Hazard Payne Belmont, would marry Alva Smith Vanderbilt, the divorced wife of “Willie” Vanderbilt, heir to what was left of the Commodore’s original fortune, while William C. Whitney’s son, Harry Payne Whitney, would unite with Willie’s cousin, Gertrude Vanderbilt.  The families then flaunted their wealth at Newport, R.I. and at Belmont Racetrack on Long Island.

Not coincidentally, Matthew C. Perry’s own marriage in 1814 had connected the Perry family to the Slidell banking family, helpful in financing the South during the civil war. Jane Slidell Perry’s brother, John Slidell, a New Yorker who owned the Mechanics Bank of New York, had fled to New Orleans in 1819, where he became a U.S. Senator from Louisiana as well as an envoy on behalf of President James Buchanan during the Mexican War. Slidell, who was caught in the middle of the “Trent Affair,” served as Confederate Ambassador to France, where in 1863 he arranged financing for the Confederacy through a European bank loan from Emile Erlanger, a German banker in Paris. [27]
With connections to the Schroder Bank and French Rothschilds, Erlanger enabled Rothschilds to control financing of both sides of the U.S. Civil War through cut-outs. The Erlanger Bank was also part owner of a blockade-running ship with Charles Pickering, whose family in Essex County, Massachusetts, advocated Northern Secession during the War of 1812. [28] As discussed previously in Untitled Aristocracy, the Essex Junto which opposed the War of 1812 was comprised of shipping families in Essex County, Massachusetts, who lost money because of the embargo against trade with the enemy, thus establishing a tradition of trading with the other side—as we will see in future articles.

It was this reluctance to sacrifice personal profit during time of war that attracted members of the Essex Junto to the Hegelian philosophy, enabling them to rationalize the treason committed against the American Republic.

John Slidell’s brother, Thomas, was a law partner of Judah P. Benjamin, whose parents moved to Charleston, S. C., when their son was a mere lad. He attended Yale in 1825-27, then returned to New Orleans where he became a lawyer and sugar planter. [29] In 1856 Benjamin joined the newly created Democratic Party, financed originally by New Yorker, August Belmont. [30] Elected to the U.S. Senate, he resigned when the civil war began and served the Confederacy in numerous capacities. [31]   Back
TAKING THE GOLDEN EGGS

© 2004 by Linda Minor
The goose that lays golden eggs has been considered a most valuable possession. But even more profitable is the privilege of taking the golden eggs laid by somebody else's goose. The investment bankers and their associates now enjoy that privilege. They control the people through the people's own money. If the bankers' power were commensurate only with their wealth, they would have relatively little influence on American business.

Louis Brandeis, Other People's Money and How the Bankers Use It [1]
NOTES:

[1] From Harper's Weekly, November 29, 1913.

[2] Ron Chernow, The House of Morgan:  An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance  (New York:  Atlantic Monthly Press, 1990), p. 77.

[3] “Governor Winthrop, … was an aristocrat to the core. He believed in the government of the many by the few, and it was he that influenced the Bay colony to create freemen out of the citizens but slowly, and to limit the suffrage to members of the Church. To this Hooker could not agree. A sharp controversy ensued between him and the governor of Massachusetts. To Winthrop he wrote that, ‘In matters which concern the common good, a general council chosen by all, to transact business which concern all, I conceive most suitable to rule and most safe for relief of the whole.’ ” History of the U.S.A. website

[4] In 1793 Dwight wrote to a friend: "A war with Great Britain we, at least in New England, will not enter into. Sooner would ninety-nine out of a hundred separate from the Union, than plunge into such an abyss of misery."

[5] The resolution appears in Fleshing out Skull & Bones: Investigations into America’s Most Powerful Secret Society, edited by Kris Millegan, a book available for purchase through TrineDay Books.  It was signed by William H. Russell, John S. Beach, Henry B. Harrison, Daniel C. Gilman, Henry T. Blake and Henry D. White, constituting the Russell Trust Association as a “body corporate and politic” for the purpose of the “intellectual and moral improvement of its members, and for that only” to have perpetual succession in law with the right to purchase, receive, hold and convey title to real estate up to a value of $15,000. This resolution appears to have been approved by a special law passed by the Connecticut legislature (most likely that set out in Volume IV, Page 1201; Volume VI, Page 850; and Volume 24, Page 432 of the special acts of the General Assembly of the State of Connecticut). Amendments were dated July 5, 1870 to change the charter so that the value of property was increased to $350,000; on March 24, 1887 to ratify new by-laws; on July 9, 1943 to increase the value of real estate to $700,000; and on November 12, 1943 to change the name to RTA Incorporated, formed under Connecticut’s Nonstock Corporation Act as an educational organization.  A report filed with the State of Connecticut in 1962 indicates that George H. Walker, Jr. (George H.W. Bush’s “Uncle Herbie”) was treasurer of the group, with his address listed as Dingletown Road in Greenwich, CT.  A subsequent filing dated February 1997 shows one of the directors of the group to be Jonathan Bush with a residence address of 2 Sutton Place South, Apt. 18D in New York City with a business address of 55 Whitney Avenue in New Haven, CT.  See Antony C. Sutton, America’s Secret Establishment:  An Introduction to the Order of Skull and Bones (published privately, 1986, at p. 253), available through Trine Day publishers.

[6] Godfrey Hodgson, THE COLONEL:  The Life and Wars of Henry Stimson, 1867-1950 (New York:  Alfred A. Knopf, 1990), p. 38.  The 1870 U.S. census for New Haven, CT reveals that Professor William Dwight Whitney lived next door to Mabel’s grandparents.  According to the online 1911 Encyclopedia:  “His interest in the study of Sanskrit was first awakened in 1848, and he at once devoted himself with enthusiasm to this at that time little-explored field of philological labor. After a brief course at Yale with Professor Edward Elbridge Salisbury (1814-1901), then the only trained Orientalist in the United States, Whitney went to Germany (1850) and studied for three years at Berlin, under Weber, Bopp and Lepsius, and at Tubingen (two summer semesters) under Roth, returning to the United States in 1853. In the following year he was appointed professor of Sanskrit in Yale, and in 1869 also of comparative philology. He also gave instruction in French and German in the college until 1867, and in the Sheffield scientific school until 1886. An urgent call to a professorship at Harvard was declined in 1869. The importance of his contributions to science was early and widely recognized. He was elected to membership in numerous learned societies in all parts of the world, and received many honorary degrees, the most notable testimonial to his fame being his election on the 3ist of May 1881, as foreign knight of the Prussian order pour le merite for science and arts to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Carlyle. In 1870 he received from the Berlin Academy of Sciences the first Bopp prize for the most important contribution to Sanskrit philology during the preceding three years. This edition of the Taittiriya-Pratisakhya (Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. ix.). He died at New Haven, Connecticut, on the 7th of June 1894.”  See The encyclopædia britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences ..., Volume 28 edited by Hugh Chisholm; Classic Encyclopedia (1911).

[7]The whist-playing professor’s brother, Edward Payson Whitney, was a medical student in the same Skull and Bones class with Mabel White Stimson’s father; another brother, Josiah Dwight Whitney, was an eminent geologist who surveyed western American regions for valuable mineral deposits before he became a Harvard professor. Half-brother James Lyman Whitney was in the 1856 Skull and Bones class with Chauncey Depew, attorney for Vanderbilt’s New York Central Railroad. Depew was a member of the newly created Republican Party in 1858 and became the first minister to Japan, appointed by President Johnson in 1866; however, he resigned before departure to work for Commodore Vanderbilt—building the New York Central Railroad. He was a member of the Yale Corporation from 1893 to 1906.

[8] The Family Forest Descendants of Thomas Mitchell genealogy:  Martha [Sherman] married Henry WHITE son of Dyer WHITE and Hannah WETMORE on 7 Jan 1830 in New Haven, , Connecticut, USA. Henry was born on 5 Mar 1803 in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. He died on 7 Oct 1880 in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. They had the following children:  Henry Dyer WHITE was born on 24 Sep 1830 in New Haven, Connecticut, USA.; Charles Atwood WHITE was born on 11 Nov 1833 in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. He died on 18 Jun 1909 in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Charles married Frances Spencer EATON on 15 Oct 1861 in New York, , New York, USA. Frances was born on 18 Jul 1836 in Ft. Gratiot, , Michigan, USA. She died on 14 Aug 1911 in New Haven, Connecticut, USA; Willard Wetmore WHITE was born on 7 Feb 1836 in New Haven, Connecticut, USA.; Roger Sherman WHITE; Thomas Howell WHITE; Oliver Sherman WHITE; George Edward WHITE.
Most of these names are all reflected on the census records for 1860 and 1870 as living in the White household. The 1860 census for New Haven shows Henry White and his wife Martha, living with sons Roger S., Thomas H., Oliver S. and  George E., with Henry D. White, a lawyer, age 29, living in the previous residence with Mrs. Eunice White, age 76. The 1870 New Haven census shows lawyer Henry White, married to Martha, with a son Roger S. White, age 32, a lawyer, living in the same house; the 1900 census for New Haven shows Charles White working as a lawyer and living at 87 TrumbullMabel Wellington White was born in 1866 in Astoria, New York to Charles A. White.
The Whites’ house was located in the same block as 37 Hillhouse—the home where George W. Bush lived when his father was a student at Yale. The Bush residence is now Yale’s Department of Economics, and Yale’s president lives at 43 Hillhouse.  See website for Farnam Guest House, which states: "Henry Farnam (1803-1883), made his fortune in the railroads in the middle 1800's and contributed a great deal of money to the early beginnings of Yale. Through his generosity, Farnam Hall, the freshman dorm at Yale, and The President's House at 43 Hillhouse were erected....The Farnams built this lovely Georgian Colonial, 616 Prospect Street, in 1934 and moved here when their residence, 43 Hillhouse Avenue, was bequeathed to the president of Yale."

[9] Godfrey Hodgson, THE COLONEL, p. 48; The Family Forest Descendants of Thomas Mitchell genealogy.

[10] Stimson had worked since leaving law school for Sherman Evarts, another Bonesman (1881) from a prestigious, politically connected, family, at 52 Wall Street—the same building which housed National City Bank of New York, where Franklin Roosevelt would later have his law office.  Sherman’s father was William Maxwell Evarts (Skull and Bones 1837), the attorney general under Andrew Johnson (who defended the Republican on impeachment charges) as well as being secretary of state under Rutherford B. Hayes when the controversy over the 1876 election was decided). The elder Evarts was also a trustee of the Peabody Educational Fund, 1867-1901 and a member of the Corporation of Yale College, 1872-91. See OBITUARY RECORD OF GRADUATES OF YALE UNIVERSITY DECEASED FROM JUKE, 1900, TO JUNE, 1910.

[11] “Mary Perry was the only daughter of Nathan Perry and Pauline Shimmer. Nathan had moved to Cleveland in 1804, one year after Ohio became a state. He became the chief rival of John Jacob Astor in the fur trade, and later became the leading merchant in Cleveland. Edward Perry, a Quaker, emigrated to Sandwich, Mass around 1639. Two of his sons, tired of harassment of Quakers, moved around 1704 to Narragansett country, near the town of Newport, Rhode Island which had large farms which used many slaves imported through Newport. Church of England enjoyed greater prestige. The impact of this gay, opulent, slaveholding society was unfavorable to the growth of so ascetic a sect as the Quakers, and the Perrys eventually moved into the Anglican communion. Freeman Perry married Mercy Hazard in 1755, the daughter of Oliver Hazard. She inherited 300 acres in North Kingstown and lived and died there.”  Website about Payne property in Poughkeepsie NY.

[12] “Rhode Island was a key juncture of the ‘notorious triangle’ in which Rhode Island rum was sold for African slaves, who then were sold in the Caribbean for molasses and sugar that were, in turn, sold to rum distillers in Rhode Island….The papers of other Rhode Islanders with slave trade connections appear in Part 2. These businessmen lived in Providence and Newport as well as Bristol, which was a center of the African trade in later years, until the 1808 congressional ban on slave importing.”  Editorial Adviser: Jay Coughtry, Author of The Notorious Triangle: Rhode Island and the African Slave Trade, 1700–1807.  

[13] The battleships Maine and Texas, commissioned during Whitney’s tenure, were useful in the Spanish-American War that began in 1898.

[14] Originally called Bangs & Stetson, the firm’s name was later changed to Davis, Polk & Wardwell, though in 1890, while former President Cleveland was a partner there, it was known as "Bangs, Stetson, Tracy, & MacVeagh." Partner Charles Tracy was the father-in-law of J.P. Morgan.  Its offices were located at 15 Broad, next door to the Morgan bank.  Bangs made his reputation by taking on William ‘Boss’ Tweed, whose corrupt political machine dominated New York City in the 19th century. Stetson was one of the first attorneys to build a large practice by advising corporations on business matters (as opposed to litigation). In 1887 Stetson began representing J. Pierpont Morgan when he helped Morgan combine several small electric companies into General Electric. The firm had also been counsel for Samuel J. Tilden in the Tilden-Hayes controversy over the 1876 Presidential election and also set up the U.S. Steel, International Paper, and ITT corporations.  The Vault Guide to the Top 100 Law Firms, 7th edition, (2004), p. 122;
The name “Wardwell” belonged to Stetson’s son-in-law, who was appointed to the Red Cross Mission to Russia.  This mission was discussed by Antony Sutton in his book , Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution.

[15] Hendrick , The Age of Big Business, p. 42; .  See also "Taking Panama."

[16] Hodgson states that the firm was on the 14th floor of the Liberty Mutual Insurance Building at 32 Nassau.  Godfrey Hodgson, The Colonel, p. 48.  Today’s maps do not identify that building, but it appears to have been very near the New York Fed.

[17] McKinley favored the remonetization of silver. Aware of silver sentiment among his constituents, he sought some means of securing bimetallism without inflation and therefore surprisingly voted with the Democratic majority to pass the Bland-Allison Act of 1878 over the veto of President Hayes, authorizing limited silver purchases and instructing the treasury secretary either to coin the silver or to issue silver certificates.  As author of the McKinley Tariff Act in 1890, he forced tariffs to new highs. He was then defeated for reelection to Congress. He served as governor during the Panic of 1893, before being nominated for President. Although McKinley was prepared to campaign on the issue of tariffs, the nomination of William Jennings Bryan—an ardent free-silver advocate—changed the central issue of the campaign. McKinley dropped his advocacy of silver coinage and came out strongly for the gold standard, winning the support of President Cleveland and many other conservative Democrats.

[18] Hay carried to the Treaty the protocol issued by McKinley. In the re-election campaign, the Republican Platform  characterized the Spanish-American War as “a war for liberty and human rights … a war unsought and patiently resisted,” and called Americans to “a new and noble responsibility” in foreign affairs. The document reaffirmed the party’s traditional commitments to the gold standard, tariff protectionism, trade reciprocity, veterans’ pensions, voting rights for all races, and an inter-oceanic canal in Central America. It approved the annexation of Hawaii (1898), antitrust legislation, and the creation of a cabinet-level department of commerce.

[19] Another fascinating Cabinet member during this era was Charles Joseph Bonaparte, great-nephew of the Emperor Napoleon—first serving as Secretary of the Navy, and then as Attorney General during Theodore Roosevelt’s administration. In 1875 Bonaparte, a Baltimore attorney, married Ellen Channing Day, daughter of Bonesman, Thomas Mills Day (1837), in Newport, Rhode Island.

[20] Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831),  a German professor at the University of Berlin from 1817 until his death in 1831, deduced from his study of European history that mankind had made a transition from a natural life of savagery to a state of order and law. Hegel asserted, “What is rational exists, and what exists is rational.” Following from that, events of history are not accidents, but instead, manifestations of the universal divine idea. While human conditions continuously change, Hegel believed, each change moves the world closer to the universal goal of history: the achievement of human freedom. Thus, history is the story of the progress of humanity toward true freedom. Hegel explained the ongoing, progressive path of history through his “law of the Dialectic": “According to Hegel, every age is governed by a dominant idea, which he labels the spirit or the 'thesis' of the age. In time, this thesis is challenged by a new concept, its ‘antithesis,’ which is incompatible with the 'thesis.' To resolve the conflict between the ‘thesis’ and the ‘antithesis,’ a blending of opposites occurs, thereby producing a higher ‘synthesis,’ which becomes the new dominant idea, or thesis, of the next age. History consists of the constant flow of ideas and their opposites, which when reconciled, reach purer forms. The new synthesis does not come without strife, but conflicts, commonly regarded as tragedies, to Hegel do not demonstrate the triumph of evil. They are necessary steps forward toward the universal goal, human freedom. To Hegel, however, the highest form of freedom was not the absence of self-restraint, for the true ethical unit was not the isolated individual but the state in which the individual lives. Consequently, the movement of history is not toward individual freedom but toward the freedom of the community as a whole. Therefore, Hegel's philosophy exalts the state because only through it can humankind find meaning and be truly free.”  Quoted in “Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel,”  World Eras, Vol. 9: Industrial Revolution in Europe (1750-1914). Gale Group, 2002. [emphasis added]

[21] After his graduation from Yale, Russell would found with Stiles French a preparatory academy in New Haven called the New Haven Collegiate Institute, which later became the Russell Military Academy.

[22] WALL STREET AND THE BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION and WALL STREET AND THE RISE OF HITLER (1974 Arlington House; 1999 Buccaneer Books). 

[23] According to the panegyrist discussion of Sumner in the Dictionary of American Biography, published by American Council of Learned Societies, 1928-1936, Sumner’s “sterling qualities…won him the lasting friendship of associates who were later prominent in the industrial and political affairs of the country. Through the aid of these, he went abroad after his graduation in 1863 for further study. From boyhood he had looked forward to entering the ministry, and he now prepared for that calling at Geneva, Göttingen, and Oxford. Returning to the United States, he was tutor at Yale from 1866 to 1869.… Sumner at once proceeded to take up the cudgel against economic and political evils and in behalf of what he deemed sound governmental principles. This warfare he carried on through public addresses, but more particularly through essays published in various periodicals, so keen in analysis, flawless in logic, and full of fire that they attracted country-wide attention. Their very titles were such as to arrest attention--The Absurd Attempt to Make the World Over; That It Is Not Wicked to Be Rich; Nay, Even, That It Is Not Wicked to Be Richer Than One's Neighbor; Protectionism, the --Ism Which Teaches that Waste Makes Wealth; Prosperity Strangled by Gold; The Delusion of the Debtors; and The Conquest of the United States by Spain. Practically every social question of the day is treated, and such underlying subjects as equality, rights, duty, and liberty are stripped of all their traditional and sentimental trappings and critically examined. Throughout his career he was an outstanding advocate of a sound monetary system, opposing free silver, bimetalism, and all inflationary expedients. For years, often almost single-handed, he fought protectionism, maintaining that as a prosperity measure it was economic quackery, and from a moral point of view, pernicious. He deplored the agitation against "big business," regarding the evolution of trusts as a natural and expedient phenomenon, and vigorously opposed any infringement of the government upon the industrial field, maintaining that state interference could not be scientific, or even intelligent, and that the remedies would be worse than the disease.

[24] “International Banking:  A Supplement to a Compendium of Papers Prepared for the Fine Study,” Staff Report of the House Committee on Banking, Currency and Housing. 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (1976). This Report identifies the Rothschild Five Arrows Group and its five branches: N.M.Rothschild & Sons, Ltd in London, Banque Rothschild in France, Banque Lambert in Belgium, New Court Securities in New York, and Pierson, Holdring & Company in Amsterdam, all of which were combined into Rothschild Intercontinental Bank, Ltd, which in turn has three American subsidiaries: National City Bank of Cleveland, First City National Bank (First City Bancorp) in Houston, and First National Bank in Seattle. First City Bancorp in Houston would co-chair the Reagan Bush campaign of 1980. The staff report  noted "the Rothschild banks are affiliated with Manufacturers Hanover of London and Manufacturers Hanover in New York.
 
[25] Commodore Perry negotiated the Treaty of Kanagawa, which provided for the protection of American seamen shipwrecked off the Japan coast, gave American ships the right to buy coal and other necessary supplies in Japan, and allowed the United States to open a consulate in Japan.
 
[26] Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. American Council of Learned Societies, 1928-1936. See biography of Oliver Hazard Perry for Whitney connections.

[27] John Slidell, who had been the United States minister to Mexico and subsequently the Confederate minister to France, was seized aboard the British mail packet Trent in 1861.  His siblings took their mother’s name of Mackenzie and remained in the North.  There is an interesting account of one of the Mackenzies’ exploits at Texas State Historical Association website.  See also “Trent Affair”.

[28] See list of banks which own Federal Reserve and excerpt from Carroll Quigley’s Tragedy and Hope.
 
[29] According to website called Denbigh: Archaeology of a Civil War Blockage Runner:  “[T]hree companies – one Southern, one French and one British – which combined to form the European Trading Company, specifically organized to run the Federal blockade into Mobile, Alabama.… The French partner in the European Trading Company was Emile Erlanger and Company of Paris. Emile Erlanger was part of successful German banking family, and set out to establish a branch of the family business in France. Erlanger's company initially issued bonds supporting railroad and government projects, and in this way he became friendly with the French emperor, Louis Napoleon. … The third partner in the European Trading Company was J. H. Schröder and Co., a banking firm of Manchester, England. Schröder and Co. managed the Erlanger Loan in England. One of J.H. Schröder's partners in the firm was Charles William Harrison Pickering…. Family tradition also holds that C.W.H. Pickering's eldest son, Charles William Pickering (1841-1928), began a seagoing career in a blockade runner that his father had invested in; if so, that ship was most probably Denbigh.” A generation after the civil war, Erlanger’s son Frederick, husband of John Slidell's daughter Marguerite, would be involved in financing completion of a railroad between New Orleans and Cincinnati, Ohio, originally called the Cincinnati Southern, which had been a vision of Charles Phelps Taft (1843-1929), eldest son of Skull and Bones founder Alphonso Taft. Emile was the son of Raphael Von Erlanger, a Frankfurt banker, by coincidence also an ambassador, who had been ennobled by the Emperor of Austria and the King of Portugal. His mother was a Lutheran lady from Hamburg called Von Albert.
Before it attained statehood, Ohio was referred to as Connecticut’s “western reserve,” the largest investor and landowner of which was Oliver Phelps. This land, granted to the state of Connecticut by treaty in consideration of the claims the colony had relinquished in order to join the Union, was the only asset of the Connecticut Land Company.

[30] Philip Benjamin, an English Jew, and Rebecca de Mendes, of a family of Portuguese Jews
 
[31] Herbert T. Ezekiel and Gaston Lichtenstein, The History of the Jews of Richmond from 1769 to 1917 (1917), p. 166.
Statue of George Peabody in London
Elihu Root
J. Pierpont Morgan
Col. Henry Stimson
Wm. C. Whitney
Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont
August Belmont
an older Henry Stimson
Taft